OWRK can be used for similar materials to Fowkes, but fits better to slightly lower energy surfaces, and requires much more experimental work. The next step is to measure the contact angle for a liquid with known dispersive and polar components. Plasma treatment is also commonly used to clean surfaces and increase surface energy. By combining Equation 4 and Equation 6, we can obtain Fowkes' primary equation, seen in Equation 7: The first step for this surface energy calculation is to measure the contact angle for a purely dispersive liquid, meaning σlP = 0 and σl = σlD, reducing Equation 7 to Equation 8: Using this, σsD can be calculated directly, when the surface tension for the liquid is known. The film is passed underneath the electrode, and the surface is oxidised to remove contaminants and raise surface energy. A common material used here is diiodomethane, which has effectively no polar component to its surface tension (due to molecular symmetry), meaning σl = σlD = 50.8 mN/m.5. Then F = T x 2l. This is seen Equation 2: This relationship is similar to (but not exactly the same as) that between the interfacial tension and spreading coefficient, S: The spreading coefficient measures the tendency for a liquid to wet on a solid, where wetting occurs for positive values. Beyond UV ozone and plasma treatment, other common methods of raising surface energy include flame treatment, etching and coating a high surface energy interfacial layer of a different material. For more information about the cookies we use, see our privacy policy. Surface tension is measured along a line whereas surface energy is measured along an area. "One of the things our research group works with is semiconductors and their applications in heterogeneous photocatalysis. Some sources quote the critical surface tension in units of mN/m, which is equivalent to surface energy. Dupré’s equation can be used to relate interfacial tension and the interactions between the solid and liquid. Contact angle on the surface (in the form cosθ) for a series of liquids is plotted against surface tension. The Ossila website relies on cookies for core functionality and to provide you with a better browsing experience. Hydrocarbon contaminants present within the air will adsorb onto the solid's surface, reducing the surface energy. Surface free energy is a measure of the excess energy present at the surface of a material, in comparison to at its bulk. to generate a hydrophobic coating), surface energy needs to be lowered instead of increased. An in-depth description of UV Ozone can be seen on Ossila's UV Ozone Cleaner page. Choosing a potentiostat can be complicated. Many of these techniques only produce temporary changes to the surface energy. present within the air will adsorb onto the solid's surface, Many of these techniques only produce temporary changes to the surface energy. Surface Tension vs Surface Energy. By continuing to browse the website you consent to the use of these cookies. The base component describes the opposite of this- e.g. gy molecules will occur over time slowly reducing the average surface energy. The most common method of calculating surface energy for polar surfaces is the Fowkes model, published in 1964.3 Fowkes' theory assesses the interactions between a liquid and solid in terms of ‘dispersive’ (van der Waals) and ‘polar’ interactions. one that can donate electron density) through polar interactions, such as dipole-dipole bonding and hydrogen bonding. Typical surfaces with low surface energy include hydrocarbons, as these are held together with weak van der Waals forces. For further information on contact angles, see Ossila’s guides to the background theory of contact angle measurements, and how to take them using the Ossila Contact Angle Goniometer. Alternatively, once σsD and either σs+ or σs- is known, the remaining component can be calculated from Equation 11 by using a liquid with known acid and base components (e.g. This can be done by adsorbing a material with a lower energy onto its surface. These interactions will sum to form overall energy: Where σsD and σsP are the dispersive and polar components of the surface energy of the solid respectively. ‘Surface energy’ is a relative measurement of the energy at the surface (which is a result of this incomplete bonding). There are also additional surface energy models that are not discussed here, such as: A high surface energy is important for solution wetting, especially in processes such as spin coating. Most of these are based on Young’s equation,1 a form of which is seen in Equation 1: Where σs is the surface energy of the solid, σsl is the interfacial tension between liquid and solid, σl is the surface tension of the liquid, and θ is the contact angle of the liquid on the solid. Equation 2 and Equation 4 can be combined into the Young-Dupré equation, which is the basic form used by many of the surface energy models: Different models will include different interactions in their calculation of surface energy, meaning values, even for the same sample, are not always directly comparable between them. In some cases, plasma treatment can etch the surface and affect surface roughness. Interactions are generally described by the work of adhesion, Wsl, which represents the work which must be done to separate the two phases, or the energy released in wetting.