Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa, lead to the question of whether Mohenjo-daro was an administrative centre. The town-planning of Harappan culture is one of its most impressive aspects, as though it was the handiwork of a genius of an architect. Settlements of Harappans with Town planning ● Harappa or Mohenjodaro in Pakistan They intersected at right angles dividing the city into square or rectangular blocks. ", McIntosh: "The enormous potential of the greater Indus region offered scope for huge population increase; by the end of the Mature Harappan period, the Harappans are estimated to have numbered somewhere between I and 5 million, probably well below the region's carrying capacity. A small fort has been laid bare in most of the important cities. The fortifications also provided protection against floods and served as the hallmark of social authority over the area they commanded. Historians differ as to the purpose for which the house was built. People of many communities lived there. Take a look at town planning, religious practises, languages, technology, arts and crafts, and the decline of the Indus Valley Civilisation! The stairways had high narrow steps, sometimes 38 cm high and 13 cm wide to economize space. Harappa architecture is the architecture of the Indus Valley Civilization, an ancient society of people who lived during circa 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE in the Indus Valley of modern-day India and Pakistan. A few staircases of burnt bricks have, no doubt, been discovered but, as a rule, wooden staircases were used which have mostly perished. The drains were connected to the main drain that stretched to the farthest extent of the town. Let us learn about this very important part of our history Thus Kenoyer suggests that a more appropriate title would be "Great Hall.". Content Guidelines Indus Valley Civilization used mudbrick extensively, as can be seen in the ruins of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. Individual house drains, each one with its own sump pit, opened into the street drains, which in their turn opened into the great culverts emptying into the river. Each town was divided into two main parts. The Great Bath at Mohenjo-Daro comes as an interesting object of discovery of 12 metres in length, 7 metres in breadth and 3 meters deep, the bath was located in a hall 55 metres long and 33 metres wide. The massive citadels of Indus cities that protected the Harappans from floods and attackers were larger than most Mesopotamian ziggurats. The most amazing aspect of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa is the town planning. Sir John Marshall compares it with a Buddhist rock- cut-temple of a later date, while Mackay calls it a large market hall with lines of permanent stalls along the aisles. Preserving Your Articles for Eternity. Some key features of the town are as follows: The streets which divided the city into neat rectangular or square blocks, varied in width but always intersected each other at right angles. The streets ran in straight lines and crossed one another at right angles. That said, the vast majority of people lived in rural areas. Houses opened only to inner courtyards and smaller lanes.The houses were built on plinths that rose above the street level with stairs recessed at the wall at the front door. Town Planning: The discovery of the Sumerian city of Ur has shed light on the lives of the early Mesopotamians. The streets were very wide and the houses built of burnt bricks lined both sides of the street. The houses were protected from noise, odors, and thieves.As seen in Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, and the recently discovered Rakhigarhi, this urban plan included the world's first urban sanitation systems. The whole complex is a single architectural unit with walls sometimes 1.2 m thick. While some of them term it as the general conference hall, others describe it as the residential quarters of high officials. They may have been built to divert flood waters. They followed a system of centralized administration. Every house had its bathroom which was on the side of the street. The citadel at Mohenjodaro contained many imposing buildings; all made of kiln-burnt-bricks, for example, the great bath, the college, the granary and the assembly hall. In sharp contrast to this civilization's contemporaries, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, no large monumental structures were built. Another estimate by Fairservice suggests a slightly higher figure of 41, 000. The house was propped up by wooden pillars. Image Guidelines 5. Town-planning was the prime specialty of the Harappan culture. The Harappan and Mohenjo-daro town planning has stunned the archaeologists worldwide. Close to the granary, there is a building similarly civic in nature - a great public bath (sometimes called the Great Bath), with steps down to a brick-lined pool in a colonnaded courtyard. In width the Kalibangan lanes and streets followed a set ratio: thus, while the lanes were 1.8 m wide, the streets, in multiples of the former, were 3.6, 5.4, and 7.2 m wide. The walls of the bathroom (generally a square small room) were wainscoted with bricks laid on edges so as to stand three inches above the level of the floor. The hall was used for some religious assembly. Situated on the left bank of the desiccated river (Ghaggar) Saraswati in Rajasthan, Kalibangan reveals the same pattern of planning as do Mohenjodaro and Harappa, with a ‘citadel’ on the west side and a ‘lower town’ on the east. It has become a specimen of wonderful town planning in today's world and has inspired the contemporary generation. In Egypt and Mesopotamia dried or baked bricks were used. The bricks were made in ratios of 1x2x4. Harappa architecture is the architecture of the Indus Valley Civilization, an ancient society of people who lived during circa 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE in the Indus Valley of modern-day India and Pakistan.. Various household articles have been found at Harappan sites. Latrines, though found rarely, lay between the bathroom and street for the convenient disposal of water. This could have served several different needs. Town planning is the unique feature of Indus valley civilization. Thus the citadel complex consisted of two equal and well- defined parts, one to the south containing several large mud-brick platforms meant for specific purposes and the other to the north containing residential houses. Water transport was crucial for the provisioning of these and other cities. The lower township was populated by the merchants, artisans and craftsmen, while the priestly and ruling class occupied the citadel. On higher ground was built the fort that housed the ruling class and the priestly class. On three sides of the bath were galleries for spectators. The citadel and the lower town were joined, although their relative directional position remained the same, the former to the west and the latter to the east. This blog is an article on the marvelous town planning skills of the ancient Indus Valley Cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. S. R. Rao estimated the population of Lothal to have been around 15,000 whereas according to S. P. Gupta, Lothal may not have accommodated more than 2,000 to 3,000 people during its peak period. Stairways, made of solid masonry, are found in nearly every house. The discoveries made at these architectural sights give us great insight into the lives & lifestyles of our ancestors.

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