In Dananu's stead, Ashurbanipal appointed a noble called Rimutu as the new Gambulian chieftain after he had agreed to pay a considerable sum in tribute to the Assyrian king. The rest of the people, alive, by the colossi, between which they had cut down Sennacherib, the father of the father who begot me, – at that time, I cut down those people there, as an offering to his shade. In addition to suicide though self-immolation or other means, it is possible that he was executed, died accidentally or was killed in some other way. Ashurbanipal may have been a murderous bureaucrat but he was also a benefactor of civilisation. [19], In May 672 BC, Ashurbanipal was appointed by Esarhaddon as the heir to Assyria and Shamash-shum-ukin was appointed as the heir to Babylonia. Nabu-ushabshi apparently claimed that Bel-iqisha was solely to blame for the Elamite invasion. [9] He is often regarded as the last great king of Assyria[9][13][4] and is recognized, alongside his two predecessors Esarhaddon and Sennacherib, as one of the greatest Assyrian kings. As for the people who hatched these plans for Shamash-shum-ukin, my hostile brother, and did the evil, but who were afraid of death and valued their lives highly, they did not cast themselves into the fire with Shamash-shum-ukin, their lord. The events of the reign of Ashurbanipal are imperfectly known, and the course of his campaigns cannot be chronologically described. After Esarhaddon defeated them, the Cimmerians had turned to attack the Lydian kingdom in western Anatolia, ruled by the king Gyges. Most of the collected texts were observations of events and omens, texts detailing the behaviour of certain men and of animals, texts on the movements of celestial objects and so forth. Ashurbanipal appears to have been unaware of Shamash-shum-ukin's involvement, though he successfully defeated the Elamites in 653 BC and ravaged their cities and country. [39] Perhaps the most important factors behind Shamash-shum-ukin's revolt was his dissatisfaction with his position relative to that of his brother, the constant resentment of Assyria in general by the Babylonians and the constant willingness of the ruler of Elam to join anyone who waged war against Assyria.[40]. In the end Ashurbanipal’s brother died in his burning palace to escape capture and his co-conspirators were killed. His reign. Most people would see this as a very clear warning – don’t mess with Ashurbanipal! The next few years saw Ashurbanipal occupied elsewhere, leading his army in Anatolia against Tabal, in the north against Urartu and in the south-east against Elam. [52] Ashurbanipal appointed no new governors of the Elamite cities after his campaign and made no attempts to integrate the country as an Assyrian province, instead leaving it open and undefended. It’s still a basis for modern translations. Soon Egypt interfered again in Palestinian affairs and Ashurbanipal despatched a punitive force in 664/3 against Tirhakah’s successor Tandamane (Tanut-Amun) who abandoned Memphis and was besieged in Thebes, which was sacked. [33] In his inscriptions, Ashurbanipal describes his victory as follows: Like the onset of a terrible hurricane I overwhelmed Elam in its entirety. [33], Following his victory over the Elamites, Ashurbanipal had to deal with a series of revolts within his own borders. [4], In 665 BC, the Elamite king Urtak launched a surprise attack against Babylonia, but was successfully driven back into Elam, dying shortly thereafter. [82], Ashurbanipal has also been the subject of artwork created in modern times. Answer and Explanation: Become a member to unlock this answer! In 640 b.c. [4] This attack is poorly documented and it is possible that Phraortes wasn't present at all and his unfortunate death instead belongs to a Median campaign during the reign of one of Ashurbanipal's successors. Meluhha might have referred to Egypt, which did not aid Shamash-shum-ukin in the war. Ashurbanipal described the reasoning behind collecting such a vast library, amounting to over 30,000 clay tablets,[4] with these words: I, Ashurbanipal, king of the universe, on whom the gods have bestowed intelligence, who has acquired penetrating acumen for the most recondite details of scholarly erudition (none of my predecessors having any comprehension of such matters), I have placed these tablets for the future in the library at Nineveh for my life and for the well-being of my soul, to sustain the foundations of my royal name.

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