Additionally, Congo red is used for the diagnostics of the Shigella flexneri serotype 2a, where the dye binds the bacterium's unique lipopolysaccharide structure. AGFA marketed the dye under the name "Congo red", a catchy name in Germany at the time of the 1884 Berlin West Africa Conference, an important event in the Colonisation of Africa. Congo red stain is the gold standard for the demonstration of amyloid in tissue sections It is used to evaluate the presence and extent of amyloidosis in different organs Common diseases for Congo red stain include primary amyloidosis, AL amyloid seen in plasma cell dyscrasias, AA amyloid associated with inflammatory conditions How long will the footprints on the moon last? How long can you keep a fresh turkey in the fridge before it has to be cooked? Congo red, first of the synthetic dyestuffs of the direct type, that is, not requiring application of a mordant (a substance such as tannin or alum used to fix the colour to cotton fibres). Congo Red stained frozen section of skeletal muscle under routine light microscopy (top) and fluorescence microscopy with FITC filter (bottom); original magnification: 400x each. Congo Red, the first direct dye, was discovered in 1883 by Paul Bottinger, who was working as a dye chemist for the Friedrich Bayer Company in Ebersfeld, Germany (Garg and Nigam, 1981; Linke, 2006). This attachment is achieved by the non-polar hydrogen bonds formed between the Congo red and amyloid deposit. The objective of this study was to assess the congo red biodegradation and detoxification by Aspergillus niger . What are the applications of Congo red dye? Due to a color change from blue to red at pH 3.0–5.2, Congo red can be used as a pH indicator. Congo red was formerly used to dye cotton but has been superseded by dyes more resistant to light and to washing. Originally intended of textiles, this use was abandoned but its use in histology due to its ability to detect amyloid has continued. CONGO RED STAIN PROTOCOL (MODIFIED FROM JOHNS HOPKINS) PRINCIPLE: This stain is used for the visual detection of amyloid in muscle and nerve fresh frozen sections in patients who have amyloidosis. However, we cannot answer medical or research questions or give advice. 1. The surface of the agar is subsequently flooded with a 1 mg/ml solution of Congo red for 15 min. Take sections to water. Omissions? However, the use of Congo red has long been abandoned, primarily because of its carcinogenic properties. What is the exposition of the story of sinigang? Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Is the northernmost point of Africa farther north than the southernmost point of Europe? In histology and microscopy, Congo red is used for staining in amyloidosis, and for the cell walls of plants and fungi, and for the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. See if your geographic knowledge points north or south in this journey through Africa. Congo red dye is a synthetic reactive water soluble dye: used in medicine (as a biological stain) and as an indicator since it turns from red-brown (in basic medium) to blue in acidic one. University of Bristol - School of Chemistry - ‘‘Congo’’ Red Out of Africa. In addition to identifying amyloid deposition, Congo red stain provides some morphologic detail. Sections cut at 6 -8 microns. The Congo red is poured off and unbound dye removed via two washes with 1 M NaCl for 15 min (Teather and Wood, 1982). Dipping red litmus paper in the red solution will turn it blue, while dipping blue litmus paper in the blue solution will turn it red. Can you treat poison ivy with econazole nitrate cream? Principle Congo red dye forms nonpolar hydrogen bonds with amyloid and red to apple green birefringence occurs when viewed by polarized light due to alignment of dye molecules on the lineraly arranged amyloid fibrils. Contributed by Kenneth A. Iczkowski, M.D. The first use of Congo red came in 1883 by an accident discovery by Paul Bottiger in Elberfeld, Germany. Alcohol 50 % Reagent alcohol ~50 ml Deionized water ~50 ml. Updates? Since this color change is an approximate inverse of that of litmus, it can be used with litmus paper in a simple parlor trick: add a drop or two of Congo red to both an acid solution and a base solution. Congo red has a propensity to aggregate in aqueous and organic solutions. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. It is prepared by azo coupling of the bis(diazonium) derivative of benzidine with naphthionic acid. The main special stain used for amyloid detection is Congo Red.  The reason for this is that the Congo red dye used in the stain is highly selective for amyloid deposits, which can lead to amyloidosis and also alzheimers.

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