The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Women were generally expected to be monogamous having only a single husband during their life (univira), though this was much less regarded by the elite, especially under the empire. Their victorious general Camillus remarked "With iron, not with gold, Rome buys her freedom. Well-Preserved Remains of Two Vesuvius Victims Found in Pompeii, Sinkholes Threaten to Swallow Naples' Historic Churches, Study Suggests, The Hunt for Julius Caesar's Assassins Marked the Last Days of the Roman Republic.  Children entertained themselves with toys and such games as leapfrog.. Advertising Notice He was also the head of the state religion. Life in ancient Rome revolved around the city of Rome, located on seven hills. Cinna exercised absolute power until his death in 84 BC. Ancient Roman laws protected against a person corrupting slaves to obtain secrets about the master's arts. These names were applied simply to those who held a certain political ideology; they were not strict political parties nor were all of the ruling class optimates nor all of the lower classes populares. In 54 BC, Caesar's daughter, Pompey's wife, died in childbirth, unraveling one link in the alliance. , Military leadership evolved over the course of the history of Rome. Roman Road Surfaceby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). While upper-class girls married very young, there is evidence that lower-class women often married in their late teens or early 20s. , Beginning with Emperor Nero in the 1st century AD, Roman official policy towards Christianity was negative, and at some points, simply being a Christian could be punishable by death. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Augustus also styled himself as Imperator Gaius Julius Caesar divi filius, "Commander Gaius Julius Caesar, son of the deified one". , The imperial city of Rome was the largest urban center in the empire, with a population variously estimated from 450,000 to close to one million. However, Carthage, after having paid the war indemnity, felt that its commitments and submission to Rome had ceased, a vision not shared by the Roman Senate. As the Republic expanded, authors began to produce poetry, comedy, history, and tragedy. During the 6th century, Justinian reconquered the Italian peninsula from the Ostrogoths, North Africa from the Vandals, and southern Hispania from the Visigoths. Archaic Roman religion, at least concerning the gods, was made up not of written narratives, but rather of complex interrelations between gods and humans. Roman law continued, in a broader sense, to be applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 17th century. The Battle of Pharsalus was a brilliant victory for Caesar and in this and other campaigns he destroyed all of the optimates' leaders: Metellus Scipio, Cato the Younger, and Pompey's son, Gnaeus Pompeius. The Roman Emperor was portrayed as only a princeps, or "first citizen", and the Senate gained legislative power and all legal authority previously held by the popular assemblies. Advancements were often divided and based on craft. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Antony's affair with Cleopatra was seen as an act of treason, since she was queen of another country. He adopted the name of Antoninus but history has named him after his Sun god Elagabalus, represented on Earth in the form of a large black stone. Cassius Dio, Herodian and the Historia Augusta have many accounts about his extravagance. The ruling class called themselves optimates (the best men) while the lower classes, or those who sympathized with them, were known as the populares (the people).  The Triumvirate proscribed several important men, including Cicero, whom Antony hated; Quintus Tullius Cicero, the younger brother of the orator; and Lucius Julius Caesar, cousin and friend of the acclaimed general, for his support of Cicero.  In 1000 AD, the Eastern Empire was at its height: Basil II reconquered Bulgaria and Armenia, and culture and trade flourished.
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