E123, formerly certifiable as FD&C red No. Use of PCR-based molecular markers to identify weedy Amaranthus species. Amaranthus is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants collectively known as amaranths. The species Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth) causes the greatest reduction in soybean yields and has the potential to reduce yields by 17-68% in field experiments. (1999). Amaranths produce enormous quantities of tiny seeds that will rampantly self-seed around the parent plant if you don't carefully harvest the seed heads when they mature. A new herbicide-resistant strain of Amaranthus palmeri has appeared; it is glyphosate-resistant and so cannot be killed by herbicides using the chemical. [4], There are approximately 75 species in the genus, 10 of which are dioecious and native to North America with the remaining 65 monoecious species endemic to every continent from tropical lowlands to the Himalayas. In China, the leaves and stems are used as a stir-fry vegetable, or in soups. It is known in Yoruba as shoko, a short form of shokoyokoto (meaning "make the husband fat"), or arowo jeja (meaning "we have money left over for fish"). [9] He describes Amaranth as 'immortal' in reference to the flowers that generally do not wither and retain bright reddish tones of color, even when deceased; sometimes referred to as "love-lies-bleeding. Amaranths are recorded as food plants for some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species including the nutmeg moth and various case-bearer moths of the genus Coleophora: C. amaranthella, C. enchorda (feeds exclusively on Amaranthus), C. immortalis (feeds exclusively on Amaranthus), C. lineapulvella, and C. versurella (recorded on A. spinosus). Grow Amaranthus caudatus in a sheltered, sunny spot in rich soil. It's also possible to collect some of the seeds in fall and replant them the following spring. They fasted or ate very little; a statue of the god was made out of amaranth seeds and honey, and at the end of the month, it was cut into small pieces so everybody could eat a piece of the god. Seeds of Amaranth grain have been found in archeological records in Northern Argentina that date to the mid-Holocene. They are eaten cooked or ground … RHS Garden Hyde Hall Spring and Orchid Show, Free entry to RHS members at selected Average outdoor temps need to reach about 55 degrees Fahrenheit before planting the seedlings outdoors. [32][33] The earliest archeological evidence for amaranth in the Old World was found in an excavation in Narhan, India, dated to 1000-800 BCE[34][dubious – discuss]. Other common names purple amaranth red amaranth While all species are believed to be native to the New World, several have been cultivated and introduced to warm regions worldwide. Depending on variety, this may take several rinsings due to the amount of chaff. Barbara Gillette is a Master Gardener, Herbalist, beekeeper, and journalist with decades of experience propagating and growing fruits, vegetables, herbs, and ornamentals. Amaranthus is part of the Amaranthaceae that is part of the larger grouping of the Carophyllales. A. hybridus, L.) or dioecious (i.e. Amaranth leaves are a good source of potassium. Amaranth seed can also be popped one tablespoon at a time in a hot pan without oil, shaken every few seconds to avoid burning. Each of these fascinating crimson or purple tassels is a colony of tightly packed, tiny flowers and lasts for many weeks on the plant, and also indoors, for they are stunning ingredients of flower arrangements. Amaranths can reach up to 2.5 m (6.6 ft) in height and are usually grown as annuals, harvested after one growing season. Large size and heat won’t turn amaranth leaves bitter, as often occurs with other leafy greens. Mexican Amaranth - Amaranthus cruentus. Amaranths don't require any feeding. [12][15][16], The phylogenies of Amaranthus of maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis of nuclear and chloroplast genes suggest five clades within the genus: Diecious / Pumilus, Hybris, Galapagos, Eurasian/ South African, Australian (ESA), ESA + South American. times, Need more criteria? [4], Amaranth has a primary root with deeper spreading secondary fibrous root structures. If starting indoors, use a general seed-starting mix and make sure to harden off the seedlings before transplanting outdoors. Amaranth grows well in any average well-drained soil, but it will struggle in dense clay soils. Some varieties are marketed as best for seed production, while others are bred for attractive, tasty leaves that work well in salads. These are very easy-to-grow plants, as befits a genus with many species that grow as roadside native plants. Shake the bag once they are dry, or knock the seeds loose over a cloth. This plant is listed in the RHS Plant Finder book. To this day, amaranth grains are toasted much like popcorn and mixed with honey, molasses, or chocolate to make a treat called alegría, meaning "joy" in Spanish. While amaranth plants are tall, they aren’t necessarily wide or bushy. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amaranth&oldid=986858803, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles needing additional references from April 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with disputed statements from February 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles containing Indonesian-language text, Articles containing Ilocano-language text, Articles containing Vietnamese-language text, Articles containing Lingala-language text, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Love lies bleeding, Amaranthus caudatus, is a bushy half-hardy annual with large, almost tropical leaves, over and through which the familiar tassels cascade to the ground. This synthetic dye is also known as Red No. Nearly all amaranths are edible, including love-lies-bleeding and even the common road-side weedy forms. The Amaranthus genus is a complicated one, featuring at least 75 annual and perennial species that easily cross-breed and hybridize. Very rich soils are not necessary for amaranth, and may even hinder flowering and seed production.

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